Hibernate tries to defer the Persistence Context flushing up until the last possible moment. This strategy has been traditionally known as transactional write-behind.
The write-behind is more related to Hibernate flushing rather than any logical or physical transaction. During a transaction, the flush may occur multiple times.
The flushed changes are visible only for the current database transaction. Until the current transaction is committed, no change is visible by other concurrent transactions.
Due to the first-level cache, Hibernate can do several optimizations:
- JDBC statement batching
- prevent lost update anomalies
A proper caching solution would have to span across multiple Hibernate Sessions and that’s the reason Hibernate supports an additional second-level cache as well.
The second-level cache is bound to the SessionFactory life-cycle, so it’s destroyed only when the
SessionFactory is closed (typically when the application is shutting down). The second-level cache is primarily entity-based oriented, although it supports an optional query-caching solution as well.
When loading an entity, Hibernate will execute the following actions:
- If the entity is stored in the first-level cache, then the cached object reference is returned. This ensures application-level repeatable reads.
- If the entity is not stored in the first-level cache and the second-level cache is activated, then Hibernate checks if the entity has been cached in the second-level cache, and if it were, it returns it to the caller.
- Otherwise, if the entity is not stored in the first or second-level cache, it will be loaded from the DB.